The state has comparative advantages in producing rainfed food crops (millet, sorghum) and cash crops (gum Arabic, groundnuts, Hibiscus, Senna and watermelon seeds), which have placed the state in a leading position with regard to the export portfolio of these crops in the country.
It is one of the crucial crops which covers and cultivated area of about one million feddan (represents 33% of the state cultivable area). The total annual production of the state is about 75 thousand ton. The productivity was recently increased from 100Kg/feddan to 400-600 kg/feddan after adoption of improved varieties (Premo, Heriheri and Elabiad 1).
Groundnuts is one of the main crops produced by the state. it has an important economic role in oil and confectionery industries. Most of these production is obtained from the improved varieties of groundnuts (Geibash, Sodari) using the recommended technological packages, irrigation and supplementary irrigation techniques. .
North Kordofan State is considered as main producer of gum Arabic in Sudan portfolio of the country. The gum Arabic product in the state is characterized by high quality and preferred by most of the countries. The state is located within the gum Arabic belt area which covers about 20% of the state. It worth to mention that the gum Arabic contributes about 12-15% of the household income in gum Arabic belt across the state. The state host the biggest crop market worldwide of gum Arabic which constitutes one of the strategic commodity that is monopolized by Sudan with significant export earning equivalent to US$ 80 million.
Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPS)
North Kordofan State has huge potential of NWFPs including fruits of baobab trees (Adansonia digtata), white gross berry (Grewia tenax), spine thorn’s (Ziziphus spina-christi), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), etc. Many studies and reports have approved the medicinal and food values of these NWFPs.
The hashab (Acacia senega), desert date (Balanites aeqyptiaca), seyal (Acacia tortilis) trees are the dominant species in the state, in addition to other trees and shrubs. The total number of the reserved forests in the state are about 204 forests.
Roselle is one of the main crops which is produced in Errahad, Um Rawaba and Sheikan localities with an average area equivalent to 0.25 million feddan/year.
The cultivated areas of watermelon is about 0.5 feddan in the state, and the seeds is used in oil industry, medicinal purposes and animal fodder
Horticultural activities are one of the main practices in the state including fruits (mango, guava, grape), vegetables (leafy and roots vegetables, tomato, potatoes and pumpkin) in addition to medicinal and aromatic plants as well as spices. The main producing areas are concentrated in Bara, Shiekan and Errahad localities. The potential area of Wadis and seasonal streams were estimated to be 250 Thousands feddan. Moreover, millions feddans of unexploited lands are available in Jabrat Elsheikh, Sodary and UmDamm HajAhmed localities. Diversification of soils and environments coupled with availability of fertile lands and surface and underground water avail suitable opportunities for producing high quality agricultural and horticultural crops